Image Analysis Software for Natural Resources

SamplePoint            SampleFreq            ImageMeasurement             About

SamplePoint is free software for manual image analysis. It facilitates foliar cover measurements from nadir imagery by superimposing a systematic or random array of up to 225 crosshairs targeting single image pixels and providing a platform for simple, manual classification of those pixels. Up to 30 species or classes are user-defined, and data are saved automatically to an Excel spreadsheet. SamplePoint has been utlized principally for vegetation photo monitoring in a wide variety of ecosystems, but is applicable wherever statistically-balanced sampling of imagery is required. SamplePoint was developed in 2004 by researchers with the USDA Agricultural Research Service and the USDI Bureau of Land Management in cooperation with Bob Berryman, who wrote the software code. This software is offered at no cost in the interests of putting tools for scientific investigation into the hands of anyone.

Minimum system requirements: Windows OS with .NET Framework 2.0, 5 MB free disk space, Microsoft Excel 97, 512 MB RAM
Current release: 1.60;  25 June 2020 (Confirmed compatibility with Win 11)
Reference: Booth DT, SE Cox & RD Berryman. 2006. Point sampling digital imagery with ‘SamplePoint’. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 123:97-108.

This software has been tested, peer-reviewed, and been found in specific projects to function properly; however, no warranty is 
implied regarding its proper function across all data sets. It is provided AS IS, with no implied liability for usage.

Download SamplePoint 1.60 (4 MB)    

Help File: English   Spanish 

Tutorial: English   Spanish

Technical Note 454: Ground-based Image Collection and Analysis for Vegetation Monitoring

Video: Ground-based Remote Sensing

Video: Acquiring High Quality Ground-based Vegetation Monitoring Images

There is no need to uninstall an older version of SamplePoint prior to installing an updated version. No classification data will be lost if updating from an earlier version of SamplePoint. For assistance, email

Peer-reviewed research using SamplePoint
The following publications used SamplePoint for data collection.

(Copyright restrictions limit access to some articles. Some links are limited to users on a network operated by an organization with a subscription to JStore or BioOne, which includes most government and university users. A free registration to ResearchGate is required to view some publications. If you have used SamplePoint in your research and it's not listed below, please let us know at 

Alonso-Ayusa M, JL Gabriel, I Garcia-Gonzalez, JP Del Monte, M Quemada. 2018. Weed density and diversity in a long-term cover crop experiment background. Crop Protection 112:103-112

Ancin-Murguzur FJ, L Munoz, C Monz, P Fauchald, V Hausner. 2018. Efficient sampling for ecosystem service supply assessment at a landscape scale. Ecosystems and People 15:33-41

Anthony CR and MJ Germino. 2023. Does post-fire recovery of native grasses across abiotic-stress and invasive-grass gradients match theoretical predictions, in sagebrush steppe? Global Ecology and Conservation e02410, DOI:10.1016/j.gecco.2023.e02410

Anthony CR, CV Applestein, MJ Germino. 2023. Satellite-derived prefire vegetation predicts variation in field-based invasive annual grass cover after fire. Applied Vegetation Science DOI:10.1111/avsc.12759

Applestein C, MJ Germino, MR Fisk. 2018. Vegetative Community Response to Landscape-Scale Post-fire Herbicide (Imazapic) Application. Invasive Plant Science and Management, DOI: 10.1017/inp.2018.18

Applestein C, Simler-Williamson AB, MJ Germino. 2021. Weather and distance to fire refugia limit landscape-level occurrence of fungal disease in an exotic annual grass. Journal of Ecology 109(1), DOI: 10.1111/1365-2745.13638

Applestein C, MJ Germino. 2022. Satellite-derived plant cover maps vary in performance depending on version and product. Ecological Indicators (155), DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2023.110950

Applestein C, MJ Germino. 2023. How do accuracy and model agreement vary with versioning, scale, and landscape heterogeneity for satellite-derived vegetation maps in sagebrush steppe?. Ecological Indicators (139), DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2022.108935

Ashapure A, J Jung, A Chang, S Oh, M Maeda, J Landivar. 2019. A Comparative Study of RGB and MultispectralSensor-Based Cotton Canopy Cover Modelling UsingMulti-Temporal UAS Data. Remote Sensing 11:2757. doi:10.3390/rs11232757

Augustine DJ, DT Booth, SE Cox, JD Derner. 2012. Grazing intensity and spatial heterogeneity in bare soil in a grazing-resistant grassland. Rangeland Ecology and Management 65(1): 39-46

Augustine DJ, JD Derner. 2012. Disturbance regimes and mountain plover habitat in shortgrass steppe: Large herbivore grazing does not substitute for prairie dog grazing or fire. Journal of Wildlife Management DOI: 10.1002/jwmg.334

Bacopoulos P, AS Tritinger, N Dix. 2018. Sea-level rise impact on salt marsh sustainability and migration for a subtropical estuary: GTMNERR (Guana Tolomato Matanzas National Esuarine Research Reserve). Environmental Modeling and Assessment. DOI: 10.1007/s10666-018-9622-6

Baresel JP, P Rischbeck, Y Hu, S Kipp, G Barmeier, B Mistele. 2017. Use of a digital camera as alternative method for non-destructive detection of the leaf chlorophyll content and the nitrogen nutrition status in wheat. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 140:25–33

Beck JL, DT Booth, CL Kennedy. 2014. Assessing Greater Sage-Grouse breeding habitat with aerial and ground imagery. Rangeland Ecology and Management 67(3):328-332

Blumenthal DM, K Mueller, JA Kray, TW Ocheltree, DJ Augustine, KR Wilcox. 2020. Traits link drought resistance with herbivore defence and plant economics in semi-arid grasslands: The central roles of phenology and leaf dry matter content. Journal of Ecology 108(6) DOI:10.1111/1365-2745.13454

Booth DT, SE Cox, G Simonds, ED Sant. 2012. Willow cover as a stream-recovery indicator under a conservation grazing plan. Ecological Indicators 18:512-519

Booth DT and SE Cox. 2011. Art to science: Tools for greater objectivity in resource monitoring. Rangelands 33(4):27-34

Booth, DT, SE Cox and D Teel. 2010. Aerial assessment of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) on Idaho’s Deep Fire Burn. Native Plants Journal 11:327-339

Booth, DT and SE Cox. 2009. Dual-camera, high-resolution aerial assessment of pipeline revegetation. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 158: 23-33

Booth, DT, SE Cox, T Meikle HR Zuuring. 2008. Ground-cover measurements: Assessing correlation among aerial and ground-based methods. Journal of Environmental Management 42(6): 1091-1100

Booth, DT, SE Cox. 2008. Image-based monitoring to measure ecological change in rangeland. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6:185-190

Breckenridge RP, ME Dakins. 2011. Evaluation of bare ground on rangelands using unmanned aerial vehicles. GIS Science and Remote Sensing 48(1):74-85

Breckenridge RP, M Dakins, S Bunting, JL Harbour, S White. 2011. Comparison of unmanned aerial vehicle platforms for assessing vegetation cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. Rangeland Ecology and Management 84(5): 521-532

Brungard CW, JL Boettinger, LE Hipps. 2015. Wind erosion potential of lacustrine and alluvial soils before and after disturbance in the eastern Great Basin, USA: Estimating threshold friction velocity using easier-to-measure soil properties. Aeolian Research 18:185-203

Buckholz MJ. 2022. Ecology of free-ranging Axis Deer (Axis axis) in the Edwards Plateau ecoregion of central Texas: Population density, genetics, and impacts of an invasive deer species. PhD Thesis, Texas Tech University, 246p.

Bustos MJ, IA Garibotti, N Cech, MC Navarro, MG Polo, P Satti. 2022. Microhabitat-specific differences on the composition and function of biological soil crust communities." Plant and Soil, DOI:10.1007/s11104-022-05556-5

Cagney J, E Bainter, B Budd, T Christiansen, V Herren, M Holloran, B Rashford, M Smith, J Williams. 2010. Grazing Influence, Objective Development, and Management in Wyoming’s Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat. University of Wyoming Extension Publication B-1203

Cagney J, SE Cox, DT Booth. 2011. Comparison of point intercept and image analysis for monitoring rangeland composition and trend. Rangeland Ecology and Management 64:309–315

Carabajal-Capitan S, AR Kniss, R Jabbour. 2021. Seed predation of interseeded cover crops and resulting impacts on ground beetles. Environmental Entomology DOI:10.1093/ee/nvab026

Chen Z, W Chen, SG LeBlanc, GHR Henry. 2010. Digital photograph anlaysis for measuring percent plant cover in the Arctic. Arctic 63(3):315-326

Clark PE, DE Johnson, SP Hardegree. 2008. A direct approach for quantifying stream shading. Rangeland Ecology and Management 61:339-345

Cox SE, DT Booth. 2009. Shadow attenuation with high dynamic range images. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 158: 231-241

Coy A, D Rankine, M Taylor, DC Nielsen, J Cohen. 2016. Increasing the accuracy and automation of fractional vegetation cover estimation from digital photographs. Remote Sensing 8(7):474

Curran MF, SE Cox, TJ Robinson, BL Roberston, KJ Rogers, ZA Sherman, TA Adams, CF Strom, PD Stahl. 2019. Spatially balanced sampling and ground-level imagery for vegetation monitoring on reclaimed well pads. Restoration Ecology. DOI:10.1111/rec.12956

Curran MF, SE Cox, TJ Robinson, BL Roberston, CF Strom, PD Stahl. 2020. Combining spatially balanced sampling, route optimisation and remote sensing to assess biodiversity response to reclamation practices on semi-arid well pads. Biodiversity. DOI:10.1080/14888386.2020.1733085

Curran MF, TJ Robinson, P Guernsey, JR Sorenson, TM Crow, DI Smith, PD Stahl. 2022. Insect abundance and diversity respond favorably to vegetation communities on interim reclamation sites in a semi-arid natural gas field. Land 11(4):527; DOI:10.3390/land11040527

Curran MF, JR Sorenson, ZA Craft, TM Crow, TR Robinson, PD Stahl. 2022. Ecological restoration practices within a semi-arid natural gas field improve insect abundance and diversity during early and late growing season. Animals 13(1):134; DOI:10.3390/ani13010134

Curran MF, JR Sorenson, TR Robinson. 2024. Soil stockpile age does not impact vegetation establishment in a cold, arid natural gas field. Reclamation Sciences 1:41-47 DOI: 10.21000/RCSC-202300004

Crimmins MA, TM Crimmins. 2008. Monitoring plant phenology using digital repeat photography. Environmental Management 41:949-958

Dangremond E, L Simpson, TZ Osborne, IC Feller. 2019. Nitrogen Enrichment Accelerates Mangrove Range Expansion in the Temperate–Tropical Ecotone Ecosystems. DOI: 10.1007/s10021-019-00441-2

Dashti H, A Poley, NF Glenn, N Ilangakoon, L Spaete, D Roberts, J Enterkine, AN Flores, SL Ustin, J Mitchell. 2019. Regional Scale Dryland Vegetation Classification with an Integrated Lidar-Hyperspectral Approach Remote Sensing 11(18):2141

Dijkstra FA, JA Morgan, RF Follett, DR LeCain. 2013. Climate change reduces the net sink of CH4 and N2O in a semiarid grassland. Global Change Biology 19(6): 1816-1826. DOI:10.1111/gcb.12182

Enterkine J, TT Caughlin, H Dashti, NF Glenn. 2024. Applied soft classes and fuzzy confusion in a patchwork semi-arid ecosystem: Stitching together classification techniques to preserve ecologically-meaningful information. Remote Sensing of Environment. 300(1):113853. DOI:10.1016/j.rse.2023.113853

Feller IC, U Berger, SK Chapman, EM Dangremond, NG Dix, JA Langley, CE Lovelock, TZ Osborne, AC Shor, LT Simpson. 2022. Nitrogen addition increases freeze resistance in black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) shrubs in a temperate-tropical ecotone. Ecosystems DOI:10.1007/s10021-022-00796-z

Ficko SA, DL Haughland, MA Naeth. 2022. Assisted dispersal and retention of lichen-dominated biocrust material for arctic restoration. Restoration Ecology DOI:10.1111/rec.13793

Ficko SA, A McClymont, DL Haughland, MA Naeth. 2023. Optimizing growth chamber conditions for maintaining Arctic lichen-dominated biocrusts. Restoration Ecology DOI:10.1111/rec.13876

Foley KM, KH Beard, TB Atwood, BG Waring. 2021. Herbivory changes soil microbial communities and greenhouse gasfluxes in a high-latitude wetland. Microbial Ecology DOI:10.1007/s00248-021-01733-8

Garcia VR, JN Aranibar, PE Villagra. 2023. Effect of light, humidity and salinity on the growth of the organisms that make up the biological crust of the soil. Ecologia Austral 33(3):641-992 DOI:10.25260/EA.

Garibotti IA, MG Polo, S Tabeni. 2018. Linking biological soil crust attributes to the multifunctionality of vegetated patches and interspaces in a semiarid shrubland. Functional Ecology DOI:10.1111/1365-2435.13044

Garibotti IA, MG Polo. 2021. Divergence among biological soil crust communities developing under different environmental conditions. Journal of Vegetation Science DOI:10.1111/jvs.12987

Garibotti IA, MG Polo, P Satti. 2023. Compost promotes biocrust and plant growth in greenhouse cocultures for dryland restoration. Restoration Ecology DOI:10.1111/rec.14020

Gasch, CK, SV Huzurbazar, PD Stahl. 2015. Description of vegetation and soil properties in sagebrush steppe following pipeline burial, reclamation, and recovery time. Geoderma DOI:10.1016/j.geoderma.2015.11.013

Gearhart A, DT Booth, K Sedevic, C Schauer. 2013. Use of Kendall's coefficient of concordance to assess agreement among observers of very high resolution imagery. Geocarto Intl 28(6):517-5264

Ghazilou A, MR Shokri, W Gladstone. 2015. Application of baited remote underwater video stations to assess benthic coverage in the Persian Gulf. Marine Pollution Bulletin. DOI:10.1016/jmarpolbul.2015.09.034

Goebel, K, DE Andersen, PJ Rice, NC Davros. 2024. Effects of insecticide spray drift on arthropod prey resources of birds in grasslands in Minnesota. Journal of Wildlife Management DOI:10.1002/jwmg.22572

Goebel, K. 2023. Insecticide drift and impacts on arthropod prey resources of birds in public grasslands in Minnesota. MS Thesis University of Minnesota

Goonan K, R Manning, CJ van Riper, C Monz. 2009. Managing recreation on mountain summits in the northern forest region of Maine, New Hampshire, New York, and Vermont. Proceedings of the 2009 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. GTR-NRS-P-66

Gosselin EN, JD Holbrook, K Huggler, E Brown, KT Vierling, RS Arkle, DS Pilliod. 2016. Ecosystem engineering of harvester ants: Effects on vegetation in a sagebrush-steppe ecosystem. Western North American Naturalist 76(1): 82-89

Govindasamy P, SK Mahawer, D Sarangi, HM Halli, TK Das, R Raj, V Pooniya, L Muralikrishnan, S Kumar, A Chandra. 2022. The comparison of Canopeo and SamplePoint for measurement of green canopy cover for forage crops in India. MethodsX DOI: 10.1016/j.mex.2022.101916

Greet BJ, BA Mealor, AR Kniss. 2016. Response of Delphinium occidentale and associated vegetation to aminocyclopyrachlor. Rangeland Ecology and Management DOI:10.1016/j.rama.2016.06.004

Guo Q, Z Hu, S Li, G Yu, X Sun, L Li, N Liang, W Bai. 2016. Exogneous N addition ehnances the responses of gross primary productivity to individual precipitation events in a temperate grassland. Scientific Reports 6:26901

Habte A, W Worku, S Gayler, D Ayalew, G Mamo. 2021. Model-based yield gap analysis and constraints of rainfed sorghum production in Southwest Ethiopia. The Journal of Agricultural Science DOI:10.1017/S0021859621000435

Haileselassie H, A Araya, S Habtu, KG Meles, G Gebru, I Kisekka, A Girma, KM Hadgu, AJ Foster. 2016. Exploring optimal farm resources management strategy for Quncho-teff (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter) using AquaCrop model. Agricultural Water Management 178:148-158

Haswell PM, KA Jones, J Kusak, MW Hayward. 2018. Fear, foraging and olfaction: how mesopredators avoid costly interactions with apex predators. Oecologia DOI:10.1007/s00442-018-4133-3

Hively, WD, BT Lamb, C Daughtry, J Shermeyer, G McCarty, M Quemada. 2018. Mapping Crop Residue and Tillage Intensity Using WorldView-3 Satellite Shortwave Infrared Residue Indices. Remote Sensing 10(10):1657

Holbrook JD, DS Pilliod, RS Arkle, JL Rachlow, KT Vierling, MM Wiest. 2016. Transition of vegetation states positively affects harvester ants in the Great Basin, United States. Rangeland Ecology and Management. DOI 10.1016/j.rama.2016.06.009

Holbrook JD, RS Arkle, JL Rachlow, KT Vierling, DS Pilliod, MM Wiest. 2016. Occupancy and abundance of predator and prey: Implications of the fire-cheatgrass cycle in sagebrush ecosystems. Ecosphere 7(6) DOI: 10.1002/ecs2.1307

Howland B, D Stojanovic, IJ Gordon, J Radford, AD Manning, DB Lindenmayer. 2016. Birds of a feather flock together: Using trait-groups to understand the effect of macropod grazing on birds in grassy habitats. Biological Conservation 194:89-99

Howland B, D Stojanovic, IJ Gordon, AD Manning, D Flether, DB Lindenmayer. 2014 Cover Crop Mixtures Do Not Use Water Differently than Single-Species Plantings. PLOS One DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0105966

Hu JB, MX Dai, ST Peng. 2018. An automated (novel) algorithm for estimating green vegetation cover fraction from digital image: UIP-MGMEP. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, DOI: 10.1007/s10661-018-7075-7

Hulvey KB, K Thomas, E Thacker. 2018. A comparison of two Herbaceous cover sampling methods to assess ecosystem services in high-shrub rangelands: Photography-based grid point intercept (GPI) versus quadrat sampling Rangelands 40(5):152-159

Hunt ER, CS Daughtry, SB Mirsky, WD Hively. 2014. Remote sensing with simulated unmanned aircraft imagery for precision agriculture applications. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing 7(11):4566-4571

Ilangakoon N, NF Glenn, FD Schneider, H Dashti, S Hancock, L Spaete, T Goulden. 2021. Airborne and spaceborne lidar reveal trends and patterns of functional diversity in a semi-arid ecosystem. Frontiers in Remote Sensing DOI:10.3389/frsen.2021.743320

Jokela W, J Sherman, J Cavadini. 2016. Nutrient runoff losses from liquid dairy manure applied with low-disturbance methods. Journal of Environmental Quality 45(5):1672 DOI:10.2134/jeq2015.09.0498

Karl JW, JK Gillan, N Barger, JE Herrick, MC Duniway. 2014. Interpretation of high-resolution imagery for detecting vegetation cover composition change after fuels reduction treatments in woodlands. Ecological Indicators 45:570-578

Klunder CR, MJ Germino. 2024. A nontarget, disturbance-resilient native species influences post-fire recovery and multiphasic herbicide-seeding outcomes in drylands threatened by exotic annual grasses. Restoration Ecology. DO:10.1111/rec.14013

Ko D, D Kim, A Narantsetseg, S Kang. 2017. Comparison of field- and satellite-based vegetation cover estimation methods. Journal of Ecology and Environment. DOI 10.1186/s41610-016-0022-z

Krueger ES, JM Baker, T Ochsner, CD Wente, GW Feyereisen, DC Reicosky. 2013.On-farm environmental assessment of corn silage production systems receiving liquid dairy manure. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 68(6):438-449

Kubecka BW, TM Terhune II, JA Martin. 2021.Temporal and scalar variations affect resource use of northern bobwhite broods.Ecology and Evolution DOI:10.1002/ece3.8161

Laamrani A, RP Lara, AA Berg, D Branson, P Joosse. 2018. Using a mobile device app and proximal remote sensing tehcnologies to assess soil cover fractions on agricultural fields. Sensors 18(3):708

Levenhagen, MJ, CD Francis, P Newman, D Taff, LC Abbott, K Fristrup, S Burson, J Newton, C Monz, C White, AR Petrelli, JR Barber. 2016. Ecosystem services provided by soundscapes link people and wildlife:Evidence from mitigation studies in a protected natural area University of Wyoming - National Park Service Research Station Annual Report 39:81-89

Liang X, L Zhao, X Xu, Z Niu, Z Wenjia. 2020. Plant phenological responses to the warm island effect in the lake group region of the Badain Jaran Desert, northwestern China. Ecological Informatics 57:101066 DOI:10.1016/j.ecoinf.2020.101066

Liu H, S Blagodatsky, M Giese, F Liu, J Xu, G Cadisch. 2016. Impact of herbicide application on soil erosion and induced carbon loss in a rubber plantation of Southwest China. Catena 145:108-192

Logsdon SD, CA Cambardella, JH Preuger. 2019. Technique to determine water uptake in organic plots. Agronomy Journal 11(4):1940-1945. DOI:10.2134/agronj2018.10.0641

Logsdon SD, Cambardella CA, PL O'Brien. 2021. Multispecies cover crops in organic agricultural systems in the upper U.S. Midwest. Agrosystems, Geosciences & Environment 4:e20221 DOI:10.1002/agg2.20221

Logsdon SD, PL O'Brien. 2022. Runoff and nutrient losses in extended and conventional crop rotations. Agrosystems, Geosciences & Environment 5(4) DOI:10.1002/agg2.20318

Lollato RP, A Patrignani, T Ochsner, JT Edwards. 2015. Prediction of plant available water at sowing for winter wheat in the southern Great Plains. Agronomy Journal 108:745-757

Lombardi VT, LE Lopes. 2024. Breeding biology of the Ochre-breasted pipit (Anthus nattereri), with notes on its conservation in the Upper Rio Grande Grasslands, south-eastern Brazil. Journal of Natural History 58(13-16):527-546 DOI:10.1080/00222933.2024.2331826

Mahood AL. 2017. Long-term effects of repeated firest on the diversity and composition of Great Basin sagebrush plant communities. MA Thesis, Univ Colorado, 37 pp

Mahood AL, JK Balch.2019. Repeated fires reduce plant diversity in low-elevation Wyoming big sagebrush ecosystems (1984 – 2014). Ecosphere 10(2):e02591

Margapuri V, T Rife, C Courtney, B Schlautman, K Zhao, M Neilsen.2022. Fractional vegetation cover estimation using Hough Lines and Linear Iterative Clustering. 2022 IEEE 5th International Conference on Image Processing Applications and Systems (IPAS), Genova, Italy, p1-7, DOI:10.1109/IPAS55744.2022.10052996

McMahon L, JL Rachlow, L Shipley, J Sorenson Forbey, TR Johnson, PJ Olsoy. 2017. Evaluation of micro-GPS receivers for tracking small-bodied mammals. PLoS ONE 12(3):e0173185

Mejia EC, CJW McClure, JR Barber. 2019. Large-scale manipulation of the acoustic environment can alter the abundance of breeding birds: Evidence from a phantom natural gas field. Journal of Applied Ecology 56(2) DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.13449

Moffet C. 2009. Agreement between measurements of shrub cover using bround-based methods and very large scale aerial imagery. Rangeland Ecology and Management 62(3):268-277

Monz CA, JL Marion, KA Goonan, RE Manning, J Wimpey, C Carr. 2010. Assessment and monitoring of recreation impacts and resource conditions on mountain summits: Examples from the northern forest, USA. Mountain Research and Development 30(4):332-343

Moonilall N, O Homenauth, R Lal. 2019. Short-term effects of amendments on soil properties and agronomic productivity for a coastal Guyana soil. Tropical Agriculture 97(1):9-31.

Nielsen DC, DJ Lyon, GW Hergert, RK Higgins, FJ Calderon, MF Vigil. 2015. Cover crop mixtures do not use water differently than single-species plantings. Agronomy Journal 107(3):1025-1038

Nielsen DC, DJ Lyon, GW Hergert, RK Higgins, JD Holman. 2015. Cover Crop Biomass Production and Water Use in the Central Great Plains. Agronomy Journal 107:2047-2058

Nielsen DC, DJ Lyon, RK Higgins, GW Hergert, JD Holman, MF Vigil. 2015. Cover Crop Effect on Subsequent Wheat Yield in the Central Great Plains. Agronomy Journal 108:243-256

Nielsen DC, JJ Miceli-Garcia, DJ Lyon. 2012. Canopy cover and leaf area index relationships for wheat, triticale and corn. Agronomy Journal 104(6):1569-1573

Oja R, K Zilmer, H Valdmann. 2015. Spatiotemporal effects of supplementary feeding of wild boar (Susscrofa) on artificial ground nest depredation. PLOS ONE DOI:10.134/journal.pone.0135254

Osterholz WR, MJ Renz, WE Jokela, JH Grabber. 2019. Interseeded alfalfa reduces soil and nutrient runoff losses during and after corn silage production. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 4:85-90

Pacioretty MT, P Martinez, E Cinto Mejia, K Reinhardt, JR Barber, MA de Graaff, AY Kawahara, K Aho. 2018. Experimental exclusion of insectivorous predators results in no responses across multiple trophic levels in a water-limited, sagebrush-steppe ecosystem. Journal of Arid Environments 160:74-81

Paolini K, M Modling, AA Suazo, DS Pilliod, RS ARkle, KT Vierling, JD Holbrook. 2020. Harvester ant seed removal in an invaded sagebrush ecosystem: Implications for restoration. Ecology and Evolution DOI:10.1002/ece3.6963

Parrish MC, S Demarais, AW Ezell, T Bently Wigley, PD Jones, SK Riffell. 2017. Retained vegetation density of streamside management zones and stringers in southern intensively managed pine forests. Forest Ecology and Management 397:89-96

Pilliod DS, RS Arkle. 2013. Performance of quantitative vegetation sampling methods across gradients of cover in Great Basin plant communities. Rangeland Ecology and Management 66:634-647

Poessel SA, DM Barnard, C Applestein, MJ Germino, EA Ellsworth, D Major, A Moser, TE Katzner. 2022. Greater sage-grouse respond positively to intensive post-firerestoration treatments. Ecology and Evolution 12:e8671

Prabhakara K, WD Hively, GW McCarty. 2015. Evaluating the relationship between biomass, percent groundcover and remote sensing indices across six winter cover crop fields in Maryland, United States. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 39:88-102

Pu Y, JF Wilmshurst, X Guo. 2024. Separating shrub cover from green vegetation in grasslands using hyperspectral vegetation indices. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 50(1) DOI: 10.1080/07038992.2024.2347630

Quemada M, WD Hively, CST Daughtry, BT Lamb, J Shermeyer. 2018. Improved crop residue cover estimates obtained by coupling spectral indices for residue and moisture. Remote Sensing of Environment 206:33-44

Rascon A, M Martinez-Salvador, G Sosa. F Villarreal-Guerrero, A Pinedo, E Santellano-Estrado. 2020. Hydrological behavior of a semi-dry forest in Northern Mexico: Factors controlling surface runoff. Arid Land Research and Management. DOI:10.1080/15324982.2020.1783026

Rascon-Ramos A, M Martinez-Salvador, G Sosa-Perez. F Villarreal-Guerrero, A Pinedo-Alvarez, E Santellano-Estrado, R Corrales-Lerma. 2021. Soil moisture dynamics in response to precipitation and thinning in a semi-dry forest in northern Mexico. Water 13:105 DOI:10.3390/w13010105

Reemts CM, RL Neill, C Neill. 2020. Forb cover increases after solarization and winter fire in a grassland invaded by yellow bluestem. Rangeland Ecology and Management 73(6):820-826.

Roldan VA, R Baldi, HF Dell Valle, D Deutschman. 2017. Living on the edge: Heterogeneity in vegetation type cover as key factor of the habitat occupied by Dolichotis patagonum at landscape scale. Journal of Arid Environments 140:42-49

Roldan VA, R Baldi. 2016. Location of breeding warrens as indicators of habitat use by maras (Dolichotis patagonum) in Península Valdés, Argentina. Mammalia 81(4) DOI: 10.1515/mammalia-2015-0136

Ryan EM, K Ogle, TJ Zelikova, DR LeCain, D Williams, JA Morgan. 2015. Antecedent moisture and temperature conditions modulate the response of ecosystem respiration to elevated CO2 and warming. Global Change Biology 21(7)

Sanders L, AD Chalfoun. 2018. Novel landscape elements within natural gas fields increase densities but not fitness of an important songbird nest predator. Biological Conservation 228:132-141

Sivanpillai R, DT Booth. 2008. Characterizing rangeland vegetation using Landsat and 1-mm VLSA data in central Wyoming. Agroforest Systems 73:55-64

Sherman JF, EO Young, WE Jokela, J Cavadini. 2020. Influence of low-disturbance fall liquid dairy manure application on corn silage yield, soil nitrate, and rye cover crop growth. Journal of Environmental Quality 49(5). DOI: 10.1002/jeq2.20085

Sherman JF, EO Young, J Cavadini. 2021. Tillage and liquid dairy manure effects on overland flow nitrogen and phosphorus loss potential in an upper midwest corn silage-Winter Triticale cropping systems. Agronomy 11(9):1775. DOI: 10.3390/agronomy11091775

Sherman JF, EO Young. 2022. Greenhouse gas emissions with low disturbance liquid dairy manure incorporation into a live winter cereal cover crop-corn system. Agronomy 12(12):2978. DOI: 10.3390/agronomy12122978

Sherman JF, EO Young, WE Jokela. 2023. Factors influencing ammonia concentrations above corn fields after dairy manure application. Environments 10(8):140. DOI: 10.3390/environments10080140

Skipper B, B Grisham, M Kalyvaki, K McGaughey, k Mougey, L Navarrete, R Rondeau, C Boal, G Perry. 2013. Non-overlapping distributions of feral sheep (Ovis aries) and stout iguanas (Cyclura pinguis) on Guana Island, British Virgin Islands. IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 20(1):7-15

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